The primary Lipan offensive weapons were the bow,
(called tcéc éhl’khiän), the arrow (called k’há) and the lance (called
tchá tche shě). Only men were allowed to construct these items, since they
would be used in warfare.
To make a bow, a Lipan man chose a piece of cedar or
mulberry wood which was naturally bow-shaped and which measured about 4 feet long.
Then they wrapped the wood in cow sinew in order to strengthen it. Some of the bows
were made stiff and straight in the middle, curving toward the points where the
bowstrings were tied and also curving back slightly at the tie-off point. Other
bows were made with a uniform curve and spring throughout. Cow sinew was also used
to make the bowstring.
Arrows were made of cimarron wood or any hard wood
which was well-seasoned and dry. In the 1700’s, arrows were feathered up to the flint,
but by the 1800’s, the Lipans had changed their feathering style to only three feathers
for arrows used by adult men in hunting and in warfare. Children were given arrows of
one or two feathers. The Lipans never used an arrow with four feathers. In the 1600’s,
flint was used as a projectile point but by the early 1700’s, the Lipans began to adapt
scrap metal, which they obtained through trade at the Pecos Pueblo, to make arrowheads.
The metal was cut or pounded into the shape of an arrowhead and tied on the end of the
arrow with sinew. Arrows needed to be straightened periodically, which was done by
heating them over a fire and running the arrow through the teeth, biting them at
intervals in order to straighten the wood. Arrows were also coated in clotted blood
or poisonous plant substances in order to imbue the arrow with ritual significance
and insure that the arrow wreaked maximum damage to the enemy.
The bow and arrow were carried in a buckskin quiver which
hung from the left shoulder. This meant that the arrows were drawn and fired with the right
hand. Many Lipan men also cut their hair on the left side of their head at the top of
their ear, wearing their long braid over their right shoulder. One reason for this was
probably so that the braid and hair did not interfere with the quiver strap or with
the left arm, which held the bow.
A Lipan lance was made by attaching a piece of steel,
usually a Spanish saber, to a long piece of wood with sinew. The steel tip was about
2½ feet in length and the wooden shaft was about 8 or 9 feet long. The lance was
adorned with feathers and metal ornaments.
After 1750, the Lipans began to obtain French muskets
through trade with east Texas tribes. The east Texas tribes had been given the muskets
by French traders in Louisiana and along the Red River. By 1780, every Lipan man was
armed with at least one gun and had become expert in their use. A Wooden stand was
mounted on the pommel of their saddle so that a warrior could rest their gun on the
stand in order to be able to take a better shot. There is also some evidence which
indicates that the Lipans had learned how to make gunpowder by 1800, although they
obtained most of their gunpowder and ammunition through trade or by force (such as
the 1790 attack on Laredo, where an entire warehouse full of gunpowder was looted).
All early references to Lipan weapons do not mention their use
of a war club, but close Lipan allies such as the Natagés did use war clubs, so it is
possible that the Lipans adapted the use of a war club from their allies. These war clubs
were oval-shaped, smooth stones to which a wooden handle was attached by sinew; they looked
somewhat like a hatchet.
The primary Lipan defensive weapons were a shield (called
da’lkái or énda ‘lkai) and horse armor. Shields were made from thick un-tanned
bull hide which was cut in an oval shape, soaked in water and placed in a shallow oval
hole to dry. Once dry, two slits were cut in each side and a loop of buckskin was placed
over the oval; the buckskin was pulled back through the slits causing the edges of the
hide to roll back, forming a 6” hem. A rawhide drawstring was then run through the hem
and tightened. When in battle, a Lipan warrior would run his arm through the two loops of
buckskin inside the shield in order to hold it. Horses were also protected by a buffalo or
bull hide “horse skirt” which protected the horse’s chest and stretched along the sides of
the horse. The horse armor was tied with rawhide straps around the horse’s neck and above
and under the horse’s tail.